发布于 2013-01-10 已有 人阅读
阅读的目的不仅在于读懂原文字面上的意义，还要求在理解原文观点的基础上，领悟作者的言外之意（learn to read between the lines）。《考试大纲》要求考生能作出简单判断和推理、能理解作者的意图和态度。这一能力要求常常通过推理引申题来考查。
推理引申题题干中常常含有infer，imply, suggest，conclude, learn，tone, attitude, intend， purpose 等一类的词。常见的提问形式有：
the purpose of the passage is to … …
it can be inferred from the passage that …
we may infer that…..
when the writer talks about …., what the writer really means is …
the author suggests that….
the story implies that….
the writer’s attitude towards ….is ….
from the passage we can conclude that….
the passage is intended to ….
in the author’s opinion, …….
the purpose of writing this passage is … …
it can be concluded that… ….
which point of view may the author agree to ?
了解了这一类题的特点和命题形式，我们还要注意正确的答题方法：在阅读时要抓住文章的主题和细节，分析文章的结构，根据上下文之间的内在联系，推断文章的深层含义。对于隐含在字里行间或者流露于文章修饰词语中的人物的行为动机、事件中的因果关系及作者未言明的倾向、态度、观点、意图等要依据文章的主题思想进行合乎逻辑的推理判断。命题者在出推理类题时往往编造一些文中已言明的事实、超出文章范围的推理、过度发挥的引申等来作为干扰项考查考生的逻辑思维能力。因此，特别注意：文中已明确说明的内容不需要推理，推理以原文中心为依据，引申要适度。对于涉及作者观点和态度一类题时，不要把自己的态度掺入其中，还要注意区分作者的观点态度和作者引用别人的观点态度，当作者没有明确表示态度时，要学会根据作者使用词语的褒贬性去判断。常用的褒义词有：positive, support, useful, interesting, enthusiasm, admiring, great, wonderful, beautiful, fantastic;常用的贬义词有: disgusting, critical, negative, tolerant, disappointed, awful; 常用的表中性的词有：indifferent, impassive, uninterested, ambivalent（矛盾的）, neutral, apathetic（无动于衷的）, humor, disinterested.
看看下面的例题：（05 重庆卷 a 篇）
my parents were in a huge argument, and i was really upset about it . i didn’t know who i should talk with about how i was feeling. so i asked mom to allow me to stay the night at my best friend’s house. though i knew i wouldn’t tell her about my parents’ situation, i was looking forward to getting out of the house. i was in the middle of packing up my things when suddenly the power went out in the neighborhood. mom came to tell me that i should stay with my grandpa until the power came back on.
i was really disappointed because i felt that we did not have much to talk about. but i knew he would be frightened alone in the dark. i went to his room and told him that i’d stay with him until the power was restored. he was quite happy and said: “great opportunity.”
“what is?” i asked.
“to talk , you and i ,” he said .” to hold a private little meeting about what we’re going to do with your mom and dad , and what we’re going to do with ourselves now that we’re in the situation we are in .”
“but we can’t do anything about it , grandpa,” i said , surprised that here was someone with whom i could share my feelings and someone who was in the same “boat” as i was .
and that’s how the most unbelievable friendship between my grandfather and me started. sitting there in the dark, we talked about our feelings and fears of life—from how fast things change, to how they sometimes don’t change fast enough. that night, because the power went out , i found a new friend, with whom i could safely talk about all my fears and pains, whatever they may be.
suddenly, the lights all came back on. “well,” he said, “i guess that means you’ll go now .i really like our talk. i hope the power will go out every few nights!”
58．what can be inferred from the passage?
a．the grandchild was eager to leave. b．they would have more chats.
c．the lights would go out again. d．it would no longer be dark.
解析：短文的中心是：在一个停电的夜晚，“我”和爷爷愉快畅谈的故事。故事中已言明：he was quite happy and said : “great opportunity.”； i found a new friend, with whom i could safely talk about all my fears and pains, whatever they may be；i hope the power will go out every few nights!这些事实，结合短文的中心，我们不难推断出：爷孙两个人以后会有更多的交流。所以，这题答案为：b。
（05 重庆卷 e 篇）
in modern society there is a great deal of argument about competition. some value it highly, believing that it is responsible for social progress and prosperity. others say that competition is bad; that it sets one person against another; that it leads to unfriendly relationship between people .
i have taught many children who held the belief that their self-worth relied (依赖)on how well they performed at tennis and other skills. for them, playing well and winning are often life-and-death affairs. in their single-minded pursuit ( 追求)of success, the development of many other human qualities is sadly forgotten .
however, while some seem to be lost in the desire to succeed, others take an opposite attitude. in a culture which values only the winner and pays no attention to the ordinary players, they strongly blame competition. among the most vocal are youngsters who have suffered under competitive pressures from their parents or society. teaching these young people, i often observe in them a desire to fail. they seem to seek failure by not trying to win or achieve success. by not trying, they always have an excuse: “i may have lost, but it doesn’t matter because i really didn’t try.” what is not usually admitted by themselves is the belief that if they had really tried and lost, that would mean a lot. such a loss would be a measure of their worth. clearly, this belief is the same as that of the true competitors who try to prove themselves. both are based on the mistaken belief that one’s self-respect relies on how well one performs in comparison with others. both are afraid of not being valued. only as this basic and often troublesome fear begins to dissolve (缓解) can we discover a new meaning in competition .
75．which point of view may the author agree to?
a．every effort should be paid back.
b．competition should be encouraged.
c．winning should be a life-and-death matter.
d．fear of failure should be removed in competition.
解析：文章结构清晰，第一段首句揭示主题：opinions about competition are different among people. 第二段作者通过生活中的观察发现：many children are lost in the desire to succeed. 并表明自己的看法：in their single-minded pursuit ( 追求)of success , the development of many other human qualities is sadly forgotten .（在他们对成功追求的简单心态下，许多其他的品德的发展被可悲地遗忘了。）第三段第一句用到表转折的副词however，其后呈现段落主题句：while some seem to be lost in the desire to succeed , others take an opposite attitude .接下来，作者分析了两种不同态度的实质：both are based on the mistaken belief that one’s self-respect relies on how well one performs in comparison with others . both are afraid of not being valued .最后作者表明自己的观点：only as this basic and often troublesome fear begins to dissolve (缓解) can we discover a new meaning in competition .分析各个段落的主题，我们不难得出文章的中心思想：只有消除竞争中的畏惧心理，我们才能发现竞争的意义。75题是一道推理题，要求我们推断作者的观点态度，分析文章的结构，结合文章的主题，我们不难推断出：d 为正确答案。
【实战演练练习八】（05 山东卷 b 篇）
fidenzio salvatori is determined that the city of toronto will have an outdoor marketplace for merchants from its immigrant community, complete with dancing and other forms of amusement from their native countries. “toronto is truly multicultural(多元文化的),” he said in a newspaper interview. “it’s a city from many places, and a multicultural marketplace will help torontonians to understand and appreciate the rich variety of cultural groups in our city.”
salvatori, aged 23, will soon complete his studies at the university of toronto. he was eleven years old when he came to canada from italy with his parents. “most of toronto’s immigrants are from lands where the marketplace has always been part of daily life,” he said.
salvatori has been interested in getting an open-air market for toronto for the last three years. this year, with the help of two fellow students, he prepared a proposal on the subject and presented it to the city’s executive committee, asking for their support. the proposal pointed out toronto’s rich variety of national groups, “whose customs include market shopping.”
under a canadian government program for multiculturalism, the three students have received tow thousand dollars with which they will do a study to find out whether toronto’s immigrant businessmen would support an open-air market. they hope the merchants will support the plan strongly. “a study done earlier this year showed that 90 percent of shoppers would be in favor of it,” salvatori said. “at first it would be an experiment. but we think it will prove to be good business for the merchants, as well as a tourist attraction.”
64．it can be inferred from the text that the canadian government supports _____.
a．the protection of different cultures b．the plan of an open-air market
c．the request of merchants d．the attitude of shoppers
【实战演练练习九】（05 辽宁卷 a 篇）
when building houses, people used to think about not only the climate of the areas but also the building materials and the fashions for their houses. however, since electricity became more and more expensive, people began to pay much more attention to the energy they could get for their houses and the new ways they could find to protect their houses from both cold and heat.
now, houses of an old yet new type have been widely built. in some parts of the world, people share their houses with their livestock（家畜）.during cold weather, they gather their cows, goats, or other animals and keep them on the first floor of their houses. the reasons are that the animals can be protected from the cold and that they can help to heat the houses as well. the body heat given off by the animals rises to the second floor of the houses, where people live. by sharing their houses with their livestock, people gain a source of heat.
people who live in or near cities do not usually keep livestock. however, home builders use the fact that heat rises. this natural law can be used in building houses in these areas. instead of keeping livestock on the first floor, builders fill it with large rocks. as they are open to the sun’s rays during cold weather, these rocks take in heat. they also give off the heat, and, of course, the warm air rises into the living areas of the houses. so these houses are energy-saving.
house-building becomes a great challenge（挑战）to building designers and energy engineers. they try to meet this challenge by learning from old traditions and by using modern technology. and someday in the future, people will be able to live in more energy-saving houses.
59．from the passage, we can conclude that __________.
a．people will no longer consider building materials in the future
b．energy-saving buildings will become more popular in the future
c．almost all people will move into the houses heated by large rocks
d．energy engineers will devote themselves only to modern technology
【实战演练练习十】（05 全国卷ⅲ e 篇）
last year my sixth-grader daughter, elizabeth, was forced to put up with science. her education, week after week ,contained mindless memorization of big words like “batholith” and “saprophyte”. she learned by heart the achievements of famous scientists who did things like “improved nuclear fusion(核聚变)” —never mind that she hasn’t the least idea of what nuclear fusion means .elizabeth did very well (she’s good at memorizing things). and now she hates science. my eighth-grader son, ben, also suffered from science education. week after week he had to perform lab experiments with answers already known .ben figured out how to guess the right answers, so he got good grades. now he hates science, too.
science can provide an exciting way to develop children’s curiosity .science education should teach ways to ask questions and seek answers. but my children got the mistaken idea in school that science is difficult, dull and has no relation to their everyday interests.
as a physicist, i am saddened and angered to see “the great science turn off” i know that science is important in our lives. yet studies prove that our schools are turning out millions of graduates who know almost nothing about and have almost no interest in science. what’s gone wrong? who is to blame?
60．by writing the text, the author questions .
a．the difficulty level of the science texts b．the way science is taught in school
c．the achievements of famous scientists d．students’ poor records in science classes
i was 9 years old when i found out my father was ill. it was 1994, but i can remember my mother’s words as if it were yesterday: “kerrel, i don’t want you to take food from your father, because he has aids. be very careful when you are around him.”
aids wasn’t something we talked about in my country when i was growing up. from then on, i knew that this would be a family secret. my parents were not together anymore, and my dad lived alone. for a while, he could take care of himself. but when i was 12, his condition worsened. my father’s other children lived far away, so it fell to me to look after him.
we couldn’t afford all the necessary medication for him, and because dad was unable to work, i had no money for school supplies and often couldn’t even buy food for dinner. i would sit in class feeling completely lost, the teacher’s words muffled as i tried to figure out how i was going to manage.
i did not share my burden (负担) with anyone. i had seen how people reacted to aids. kids laughed at classmates who had parents with the disease. and even adults could be cruel. when my father was moved to the hospital, the nurses would leave his food on the bedside table even though he was too weak to feed himself.
i had known that he was going to die, but after so many years of keeping his condition a secret. i was completely unprepared when he reached his final days. sad and hopeless, i called a woman at the nonprofit national aids support. that day, she kept me on the phone for hours. i was so lucky to find someone who cared. she saved my life.
i was 15 when my father died. he took his secret away with him, having never spoken about aids to anyone, even me. he didn’t want to call attention to aids. i do.
63． why did kerrel write the passage?
a. to tell people about the sufferings of her father.
b. to show how little people knew about aids.
c. to draw people’s attention to aids.
d. to remembered her father.
in many countries the standard of living enjoyed by their peole has increased rapidly in recent years. sadly,not everyone in these coyntries is so fortunate and many people in rich contries are homeless.
the reasons for homelessness are various, but poverty（贫穷）is undoubtedly one of the main causes. the homeless people may have become jobless and then been unable to pay their rent and so no longer have a roof over their heads. often, the fact that unemployed people get help from the government prevents this from happening, but not always.
some homeless people are mentally ill and have no one to look after them. some are young people who, for one reason or another , have left home and have nowhere to live. many of them have had a serious disagreement with their parents and have left home, choosing to go to a city and live on the streets. sometimes they have taken such action because they have been unable to get on with a step-parent.
many homeless people get into the habit of begging to get enough money to stay alive, but many of the general public tefuse to give anything to beggars. often they are moved on by the police, being accused （指控），whether rightly or wrongly, of forceful begging . there are many who disrespect homeles people.
some cynics（愤世嫉俗的人）declare that homeless people choose to live the life which they lead. but who would willingly choose to live in z shop doorway, under a bridger or in a cardboard box?
53． it can be inferred from the text that________.
a. the homeles are willing to live under a bridge or in a cardboard box
b. you will not find homeless people in countries with a high standard of living
c. the mentally ill live on the stress becausethey want the company of other homeless people
d. the unemployed who receive help may still be among the homeless